Endnotes

1 B-corporations are the exception; they balance profit and purpose with high standards of social and environmental performance, public transparency, and legal accountability. More information is available at https://bcorporation.net/

2 Martusewicz, Rebecca A., Jeff Edmundson, and John Lupinacci. EcoJustice Education: Toward Diverse, Democratic, and Sustainable Communities, 2nd Edition, New York: Routledge Publishers, 2014, p.26.

3 ShadowStats.com maintains measures that have kept the measuring tool constant.

4 RE: How many high-speed trades? It depends on how you count trades. Is one trade an exchange between two parties? Or, does each participant count as one trade? Author and researcher Michael Lewis, in his book Flash Boys (2014) says evidence suggests that there may be a high-speed trader on one side of nearly every exchange today. Wall Street often quotes TABB Group’s data that says high frequency trading is slightly under half of all trades. Senator Mark Warner said in 2016 that “The average time someone used to hold a share of stock back in the ‘60s was eight years. Now, the average time is four months.” Politifact checked his statement with proprietary data from the New York Stock Exchange, and found his statement true for the US Marketplace. An average of 4 months is a key indication of high speculation over long-term investment.

5 The United States Financial Reports are published every year in December (or later…depending who is managing the Administration. They are available the Bureau of the Fiscal Service at Treasury. https://fiscal.treasury.gov/reports-statements/financial-report/current-report.html

6 Gilens, Martin. “Inequality and Democratic Responsiveness.” Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 69, No.5, Special Issue 2005, pp. 778–796.

7 “Rebuilding America’s Defenses: Strategy, Forces and Resources for a New Century. A Report of The Project for the New American Century.” Washington, D.C., 2000. Available @ https://web.archive.org/web/20130817122719/https://www.newamericancentury.org/RebuildingAmericasDefenses.pdf. Retrieved July, 2019.

8 Hoff, Brad. “Hillary Emails Reveal True Motive for Libya Intervention.” Foreign Policy Journal, Jan 6, 2016. Available @ https://www.foreignpolicyjournal.com/2016/01/06/new-hillary-emails-reveal-true-motive-for-libya-intervention/ . Retrieved July 2019.

9 Chadwick, Lauren and R. Jeffrey Smith. “Congress Funds Problematic Weapons the Pentagon Does Not Want.” The Center for Public Integrity. July 7, 2016. Available @ https://publicintegrity.org/national-security/congress-funds-problematic-weapons-the-pentagon-does-not-want/. Retrieved July 2019

10 “The Extinction Crisis.” Center for Biological Diversity, https://www.biologicaldiversity.org/programs/biodiversity/elements_of_biodiversity/extinction_crisis/ Retrieved July, 2019.

11 Huber, Joseph. Sovereign Money: Beyond Reserve Banking, New York: Palgrave Macmillan; 1st edition, 2016.

12 Marc Tognotti, Ph.D., CEO, Infinity Point Capital, and Director, Institute of the Commons.

13 FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Economic Research Data. “Table 6.16D. Corporate Profits by Industry: Quarterly.” Retrieved 6/2019. Note, financial profits are 29 percent of “Corporate profits with inventory valuation adjustment, Domestic Industries,” – $445 billion of $1,550 billion.

14 US Government Congressional Budget Office. “Options for Reducing the Deficit: 2019 to 2028; Impose a Tax on Financial Transactions.” December 13, 2018. https://www.cbo.gov/budget-options/2018/54823

15 Institute for Taxation and Economic Policy (ITEP). “60 Fortune 500 Companies Avoided All Federal Income Tax in 2018 Under New Tax Law.” April 11, 2019. https://itep.org/60-fortune-500-companies-avoided-all-federal-income-tax-in-2018-under-new-tax-law/

16 Kumhof, Michael and Jaromir Benes. “The Chicago Plan Revisited.” International Monetary Fund Working paper 12/202. Washington: IMF, 2012. https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2012/wp12202.pdf

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